For a family doctor
Indications for computed tomography
- Any deviation according to X-ray test. The helical CT scanning of the thoracic cavity allows to diagnose at an early stage:
- Infectious lung diseases (pneumonia, respiratory tuberculosis, pneumoconiosis, parasitic infections);
- Lung tumors (central, peripheral, bronchiolo-alveolar cancer);
- Metastatic lung lesions;
- Interstitial lung diseases (alveolitis, lymphogenous carcinomatosis, histiocytosis, sarcoidosis, silicosis and anthracosis, hypersensitive pneumonitis, emphysema);
- Bronchi diseases (bronchiectasis, cysts, cicatricial stenoses of bronchi, foreign bodies of bronchi, bronchitis);
- Disorders of pulmonary blood circulation (pulmonary artery thromboembolia, pulmonary infarction, septic pulmonary embolism, pulmonary artery anomalies);
- Extrapulmonary pathological processes (neoplasm of mediastinum, mediastinitis, pleural pathology (pleural effusion, pneumothorax, pleural tumors).
- Urolithiasis (renal colic).
The helical CT scanning of the abdominal and pelvic cavities without bolus contrasting with obvious clinical and laboratory (hematuria) signs of renal colic allows not only to define the exact sizes and localization of concrements in the urinary system, but also to obtain the value of their density in Hausfield units, which is extremely important for choosing the further tactics of treatment. This examination is now a generally accepted standard for diagnosis in urolithiasis and can be prescribed already at the initial stage of treatment of the patient (even before the urologist consultation).
- Formations or pathological changes in the abdominal and pelvic cavities identified by ultrasound examination. The helical CT scanning of abdominal organs with bolus contrasting allows to diagnose:
- Primary or secondary tumor lesions of the liver and biliary ducts, fatty dystrophy, abscesses, cysts, including parasitic ones, liver cirrhosis;
- Causes of biliary hypertension;
- Hepatomegaly of unclear etiology;
- Mechanical damages of the abdominal cavity and the retroperitoneal space;
- Acute and chronic pancreatitis (differential diagnosis with early forms of c-r pancreas);
- Various lesions of the spleen, splenomegaly of unknown etiology;
- Tumor, inflammatory lesions of the kidneys;
- Abnormal development of the abdominal cavity organs and retroperitoneal space, vascular abnormalities;
- Extensive adrenal lesions;
- Condition of abdominal lymph nodes;
- Pathology of the abdominal aorta and its branches (aneurysm, stenosis, exfoliating aneurysm);
- Pathology of the lower hollow, portal veins and their tributaries (varicocele, portal hypertension).
- Tumor lesions of the bladder, uterus, prostate;
- The prevalence of tumor lesion on adjacent structures; to assess the condition of regional lymph nodes;
- Pathology of the iliac vessels (aneurysm, stenosis, exfoliating aneurysm).
- All kinds of CNS pathology, persistent headaches of unclear etiology. CT of the brain allows to reveal:
- Acute disturbance of cerebral circulation;
- Craniocerebral injury of any severity;
- Tumor lesions of the brain;
- Anomalies of the brain and facial skull, craniovertebral transition.
- ENT pathology. CT of the paranasal sinuses reveals:
- All types of pathology of the main, frontal, maxillary sinuses, cells of the latticed labyrinth;
- Pathology of the nasal cavity (curvature of the nasal septum, inflammatory changes) and nasopharynx.
- All kinds of pathology of the spine. CT of the cervical, thoracic or lumbar spine can detect:
- Degenerative changes (protrusions, herniated intervertebral discs);
- Postoperative changes;
- Traumatic injuries;
- Tumor changes;
- Inflammatory diseases.
- Osteoarticular pathology. CT of bones and joints reveals:
- Fractures of bones without displacement of fragments, which are often not detected by routine radiography (expert cases);
- Aseptic necrosis of the head of the femur and other bones at an early stage;
- Tumor and degenerative-dystrophic lesions of bones and joints.
Contraindications for the CT scan:
There are no absolute contraindications for the CT scan. Since the exam is associated with radiation exposure, when examining pregnant women and young children it is necessary to carefully weigh the need for the CT scan in each specific case.
Restrictions for the CT scan:
- Presence in the stomach and intestines of barium suspension with a previous exam of the abdominal cavity;
- Inadequate behavior of the patient;
- Body weight over 120 kg.
To optimize the CT scan it is desirable to provide our doctor with a preliminary diagnosis, the purpose and objectives of the exam.
To assess the dynamics of a previously identified disease, or to refine the data of other diagnostic methods (ultrasound, CT, MRI, angiography, scintigraphy, PET, etc.) it is necessary to bring with you the results (images, medical opinion, CD \ DVDs) of previous exams.
It is highly desirable to have clinical statements (outpatient card, epicrisis, advisory opinions) on the topic of the disease of interest.